Members of the Expedition

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luckily, several served as witnesses after the Expedition returned to New Spain.

Hernando de Alarcón was born to citizens of Granada. Alarcón came to New Spain with Viceroy Mendoza in 1535 and served in his personal guard. He may have had two sons, Pedro and Hernando Alarcón.

Hernando de Alba was born in the city of Salamanca. His father was Hernando de Alva, a native of Salamanca. His mother was Catalina de Soto, a native of Antequera. He came to New Spain in 1538.

All that is known about Francisco de Alcántara is that he was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Pedro Alcántara was possibly from Córdova, if his father was Juan de Alcántara and his mother was María de Pedrosa. He may have come to New Spain with Cortés. Pedro was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Diego de Alcaraz was born sometime around 1507. In 1530 he served in Guzmán's expedition and was a conqueror of Culiacán. He also served under Cherinos in Petlatlan. He was in his 30s when he joined the Expedition in 1540.

Domingo Alonso was born sometime around 1515. He was about twenty-five years old when he joined the Expedition in 1540. He was born possibly in Sevilla. He arrived in New Spain before 1538.

The only certain reference to Martín Alonso de Astorga is his presence at the 1540 Muster as a footman. This fact might indicate that he was Martín Alonso from Astorga.

Hernando de Alvarado was born in 1516 in Las Montañas, Torrelavega, which was under the jurisdiction of the duque of Infantado and today is in the modern province of Cantabria. His place of birth placed him within the Mendoza family orbit.

Antonio Álvarez was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. Possibilities for his birth place range from Tenerife and Toledo in Spain to Lisbon.

Gaspar Álvarez was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. He was born in Portugal though the exact year is unknown. His father may have been Alonso Álvarez.

Lorenzo Álvarez was born sometime around 1515 and was about twenty-five years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition. He was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman with several pieces of armor.

Pedro Álvarez is mostly like the man born in Berlanga, Badajoz, son of bachiller Perálvarez and Isabel Ruis. He received license to come to New Spain in September 1538 along with Graviel Hernández, a fellow expeditionary.

Rodrigo Álvarez was born in Barcarrota (in the modern day province of Badajoz). At the expedition's muster his name is recorded as Rodrigo Álvarez de Zafra, meaning he was from Zafra not far from Barcarrota.

Little is known about the life of Roque Álvarez. Historical records do not indicate when or where Roque was born. He was present at the 1540 muster as a footman. He might have been in Mexico City in 1580.

Alonso Álvarez del Valle was born sometime around 1522 and was about eighteen years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition. He may have been born in Villanueva de Barcarrota (which is in the current Spanish province Badajoz).

Alonso de Aranda was born in Hinojosa (in the modern province of Córdoba). He died in February of 1563. Alonso was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Diego López's company.

Gonzalo de Arjona most likely was born in Jérez de los Caballeros in the modern day province of Badajoz. He probably is the individual of the same name who went to Peru with expeditionary Francisco de Vargas in 1537.

The life of the Pedro de Ávila who went on the expedition remains a mystery. During the mutiny at Los Corazones in Sonora, he was named its leader. The mutineers abandoned the outpost and fled.

Baltasar de Acevedo was born in La Puebla de Montalbán (modern Toledo province), thus he had a connection to the Mendoza clan through the Marqués de Villena. He was the son of Diego Dómez and Luisa de Azebedo.

Jorge Báez came to Nueva España on the Narváez expedition in 1520. He was a first poblador and vecino of Puebla. Historical records indicate that prior to the expedition he was a scribe, a mine owner, and a farm owner.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The Hernando de Barahona that we favor is the son of Hernando Baraona (sic) and María Chacón, who was from Fuente del Maestre (Badajoz).

Juan Barbero was born possibly in Sevilla at least by 1500, which would make him about forty years old when he went on the Expedition. This same Juan Barbero was married to Francisca Rodríguez.

Juan Barragán was not present at the 1540 muster. However, a document executed in Tiguex (NM) stated that he was a native of born Llerena which is located in the modern province of Badajoz. He apparently left his wife and children in Spain.

Rodrigo de Barrionuevo was born before 1521 in Granada. He arrived in New Spain with Viceroy Mendoza in 1535. He went on the Expedition as an unassigned horseman with his brother Velasco.

Velasco Barrionuevo was born in Granada. He came to New Spain with Viceroy Mendoza in 1535 and was a member of his personal guard. He served on the Expedition as an unassigned horseman along with his brother Rodrigo de Barrionuevo.

We know so little with certainty about Pedro de Benavente. Pedro was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. He might possibly have continued on to the Philippines after the Expedition, as other expeditionaries did.

Juan de Benavídes was born in Benavente in the modern province of Zamora. Prior to the Expedition he received a salary from Viceroy Mendoza. He was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Pedro de Benavídes was born in Benavente in the modern province of Zamora. Prior to the Expedition he was in Desaguadero, having arrived in New Spain in 1531. He then participated in the 1536 conquest of Honduras and Gracias a Dios.

The only mention we have of a Benítez being on the Expedition comes from the work of Mota Padilla written in 1742. He mentioned that a Benítez died in the Tiguex War.

Juan Bermejo was a native of Torrelaguna which is in the Madrid Province. His place of birth was part of the Mendoza Family territory. Juan was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Froliano Bermúdez was born in 1516 and was twenty-four years old when he went on the Expedition. He was probably in New Spain by 1528 and in 1534 he was in Desaguadero, Tierra Firma with fellow expeditionary Pedro de Benavídes.

Pascual Bernal (de Molina) was born circa 1497, making him one of the oldest members of the Expedition at age 43. It is most likely that the "de Molina" refers to his place of origin, Molina in the province of Guadalajara, Spain.

The only documentary evidence we have of Andrés Berrugo is during the Muster of 1540. He was listed as a member of Vázquez de Coronado's retinue.

Cristóbal Bertao was born in La Debornuel, France, in the area of Rouen, Normandy and had come to New Spain at least by 1537. Cristóbal reported in 1547 that he was married to an unnamed daughter of Cristóbal Val López and had two children.

Juan de Beteta was born around 1516 in Torralba in the modern province of Cuenca. His place of birth was within Mendoza-controlled properties.

The birth year for Tomás Blaque (Thomas Blake) ranges between 1506 and 1519.

Juan Carlos de Bonilla was born in 1508. He was approximately thirty-two years old when he went on the Expedition.

We have no direct information regarding Pero Boo, other than that he served under captain Diego Gutiérrez de la Caballería on the Expedition. The last name of Boo may be associated with families in northern Spain.

Hernando Botello was born in approximately 1517. He was about twenty-three years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition. He was a native of Algarrovillas, just east of Alcántara in the modern province of Cáceres.

Jaco de Brujas was born in Bruges, which at the time was controlled by the count of Flanders and ultimately King Carlos. He obtained a license for the New World in 1528. Jaco was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

The name Juan de Bustamante was common enough in parts of the Spanish New World empire to hamper our ability to definitively gather information on the individual who participated in the Expedition.

Although it is not absolutely certain, Cristóbal Caballero was probably born in Zamora in the modern province of Zamora to Alonso Caballero and Isabel González.

Lope Caballero was born in Lugo in the modern province of Lugo. His father was Juan Cavallero and his mother was Mari Hernández. He arrived in New Spain around 1537.

Rarely do women appear in the documentary record. Luckily, the expeditionary Lope Caballero stated in 1547 that he had taken his Native wife with him on the Expedition. Unfortunately, he gives no further details about her.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luckily, several served as witnesses after the Expedition returned to New Spain.

Hernando de la Cadena was born at least by 1512, making him at least 28 years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition. He was born in Medillín in the modern province of Badajoz to Lope de la Cadena and Elvira Núñez de Parada.

If Lope de la Cadena was the brother of Hernando de la Cadena, then he was also born in Medillín in the modern province of Badajoz, Spain, and his parents would have been Lope de la Cadena and Elvira Núñez de Parada.

There are several individuals in New Spain with the name Francisco Calderón. Francisco was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Andrés de Campo was born in Portugal but the exact year is not known. He was a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company.

Bartolomé del Campo appears on the Expedition's muster roll as a horsemen. Another expeditionary reported that a search was conducted on the Llano Estacado of west Texas for the lost Bartolomé, but apparently he was never found.

The surname of Diego de Candía might indicate that he was from Crete.

Alonso de Canseco was born in 1517 and was approximately twenty-three years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition. His place of birth was apparently León (in the modern province of León).

While serving as an unassigned horseman Francisco de Caravajal died in the Tiguex War, thus curtailing his documentary record.

The work of fray Antonio de Tello in the 1650s mentioned that an Alonso de Castañeda died during the Tiguex War.

Pedro de Castañeda de Nájera was the author of one of the few first hand reports of the Expedition and by far the longest. He was born in 1515 perhaps in the city of Baeza (in the Jaén province).

Fray Antonio Castilblanco was born circa 1499. A secondary source suggests that he was from the modern province of Córdoba. He arrived in New Spain in 1538. At forty-one he was one of the oldest participants on the Expedition.

Gonzalo de Castilla was probably born in Córdoba (Córdoba) though the exact year is unknown. There are several individuals with the name Gonzalo de Castilla in New Spain, but we favor the man who accompanied doña Juana de Sosa in 1536.

Very little is known about Gaspar de Castilleja other than that he served under Hernando de Alarcón as the fleet's accountant. He was also a member of Viceroy Mendoza's personal guard.

There were several individuals in New Spain with the name Diego del Castillo but we prefer the Diego who came to New Spain with fellow expeditionary Hernando de la Cadena and obtained his license to travel in 1536, just two people before Hernando.

García del Castillo was born in 1520 in Sevilla (Sevilla province). We prefer the García, son of Beltrán de Cortina/Cetina and Francisca del Castillo, who came to New Spain in 1535. He was 20 years old when he joined the Expedition.

We know very little about Domingo del Castillo, the chief ship's pilot and mapmaker for the Hernando de Alarcón phase of the Expedition. He had been on Francisco de Ulloa's voyage in the Gulf of California in 1539.

There were several Francisco de Castros in New Spain, none of whom is definitively the individual on the Expedition. All we know for certain is that he served in Diego López's company.

Miguel de Castro served under don Tristán de Luna y Arellano while on the Expedition. Other than that fact we know little with certainty.

Pedro de Castro was born in about 1524. He was approximately sixteen years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition. His brother might have been fellow expeditionary Francisco de Castro.

We prefer the Hernando de Castroverde who obtained a license for New Spain in 1536. If our assumption is correct, then he was born in Medina de Rioseco in the modern province of Valladolid to Alonso de Castroverde and Isabel Requexón.

The only choice for the expeditionary Juan de Celada appears to be the individual who was a witness in 1537. If so, he was born sometime before 1507, making him over thirty when he went on the Expedition.

Juan de Cepeda was born around 1511 in Toledo (Toledo) to Pedro de Çepeda and Catalina de Álvares. He was approximately twenty-nine years old when he went on the Coronado Expedition, where he served under don Rodrigo Maldonado.

All we know about Diego de Cervatos is that he was an unassigned horseman on the Coronado Expedition and possessed several pieces of chainmail. It is possible that the lack of a documentary record indicates that he died on the expedition.

Juan de Céspedes was possibly born in 1522 in Cuenca (Cuenca). He came to New Spain in 1532 after having served the king in Orán and Italy. Prior to the Coronado Expedition, he was a corregidor and alcalde mayor in Oaxaca.

The only piece of information we have for Luis de la Chica is that he was present at the 1540 muster for the expedition as an unassigned horseman. This lack of information may indicate that he was one of the casualties of the Expedition.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luckily, several served as witnesses after the Expedition returned to New Spain.

Despite the facts that Juan de Contreras was in New Spain probably as early as 1530, that he was a member of Viceroy Mendoza's personal guard, and served as Vázquez de Coronado's head groom, we don't know where in Europe he came fro

Juan Cordero was born around 1507. He was approximately thirty-three years old when he went on the Expedition. In 1538 he was most likely a tailor in Puebla and may have joined the Expedition along with several other expeditionaries from Puebla.

Francisco de Cornejo was born around 1512 in Salamanca (Salamanca) to Álvaro Cornejo and Ana Maldonada. He was about twenty-eight years old when he went on the Expedition.

Pedro Cortés was born sometime before 1516 in Tendilla (Guadalajara province, Spain) to Alonso Cortés and Mari López, which would place Pedro within the Mendoza clan's sphere.

Andrés de Covarrubias was born in Medina del Campo (Valladolid) to Francisco de Cobarrubias and Costanza de Palacios. He received a license for New Spain in 1537. Andrés was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Juan de Cuenca was born about 1517 and was approximately twenty-three years old when he went on the Expedition. He served as the major scribe for the Alarcón expedition into the Gulf of California and up the Colorado River.

The Franciscan fray Daniel was born in Italy though the exact year is not known. Fellow expeditionary Pedro de Ledesma reported that fray Daniel was wounded in the fighting at Hawikku Pueblo.

Diego Dávalos was not present at the 1540 muster. In 1546 or 1547 he stated that Viceroy Mendoza had provided him with a horse and other things in order to participate in the Expedition. Thus, he was a criado of Mendoza.

The only documentary record that clearly refers to the expeditionary Antón Delgado is the muster taken in 1540, in which he is listed in Vázquez de Coronado's company.

The name Diego Díaz was very common in New Spain as is evident from the documentary record. During the muster of 1540 Diego's name was recorded as the footman Diego Díaz de Santo Domingo.

The name Francisco Díaz was very common both in Spain and New Spain.

Melchor Díaz had been in New Spain and specifically in Nueva Galicia from at least 1528. The documentary record shows him in Compostela, Sinaloa, Culiacán, and Guadalajara.

The only documentary evidence we have for Juan de Duero was his presence at the 1540 muster in which he was listed as a footman. He may have been one of the casualties of the Expedition, thus accounting for the lack of a documentary trail.

The name Pedro de Écija appears only once in the Boyd-Bowman compilation, which may suggest that any individual with that name in New Spain would be the expeditionary.

Miguel de Entrambasaguas was born sometime before 1517 in Burgos (Burgos) to Diego de Entrambasaguas and María de Castro. He obtained his license to travel to New Spain in May 1537.

Cristóbal de Escobar was born in 1518 in Aracena (Huelva) to Alonso Martín de Escobar and Mayor Gómez Castillo.

The only fact known with certainty regarding Rodrigo de Escobar is that he is listed on the 1540 muster as a member of Diego López's company.

We prefer the Luis de Escobedo who was born in Medinaceli (Soria) to Diego de Escobedo and doña María de Cascanti, because this Luis obtained a license to travel to New Spain in July 1537 and was listed just one person away from fellow expeditiona

Francisco de Espinosa was listed on the 1540 muster as a footman.

The name as listed in the 1540 muster as the horseman Alonso Esteban de Mérida may indicate that he was in fact Alonso Esteban from Mérida (Badajoz).

Martín de Estepa was listed on the 1540 muster as a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company. Fellow expeditionary Alonso Sánchez reported that Estepa set dogs on Indians, most likely on the orders of López de Cárdenas.

There is only one Gerónimo de Estrada in the extant documentary record, so with some degree of confidence he is the expeditionary. He probably was born in Dueñas (Palencia) to Antonio Pastor and Isabel de Estrada.

Domingo Fernández was not present at the 1540 muster. The only reference we have to his participation comes from the work of fray Antonio Tello in the 1550s and later repeated in Mota y Padilla's work of the 1700s.

Luis de Figueredo himself reported that he was a native of Ebora, Portugal and the son of Gonzalo de Figuerõa and Malgarida Cordosa.

Juan Fioz was born between 1514 and 1518 in Worms, Germany. He was perhaps the only German to join the Expedition. Prior to the Expedition he was a trumpeter and a member of Viceroy Mendoza's personal guard.

The documentary record indicates only one Juan Francés in Mexico, so most likely he is the expeditionary.

The name Juan Franco appears extensively in the documentary record but Juan Franco de Mentre does not. The expeditionary is listed on the 1540 muster with "de Mentre" added to his name.

Rodrigo de Frías was born sometime between 1512 and 1515 in Talavera de la Reina (Toledo) to Licenciado Frías and Elena de Lovado. He obtained a license for New Spain in May 1536 and traveled with fellow expeditionary Gaspar de Guadalupe.

Miguel de Fuenterrabía was born some time between 1519 and 1524, making him somewhere between sixteen and twenty-one years old when he went on the Expedition. On the 1540 muster he was listed as a footman.

Juan Galeras was possibly born in 1513 in Almendralejo (Badajoz). He obtained a license for travel to New Spain in 1535, leaving his wife behind.

Galiveer is listed on the 1540 muster as a footman without a first name. We surmise that his surname might have been Gulliver, placing him as a native of England. The documentary record for this individual is completely lacking.

Cristóbal Gallego was listed on the 1540 muster as a horseman. He was mostly likely the man sent by investor Guido de Lavezariis to act as his agent.

Diego Gallego did not appear on the 1540 muster. Only because of the death of fellow expeditionary Juan Jiménez in the Tiguex province, do we know that Diego Gallego was present on the Expedition.

Juan Gallego was born before 1500, making him one of the oldest expeditionaries at over forty years of age. He was in New Spain since 1521 and thus was considered one of the first settlers.

Lope Gallego was present at the 1540 muster and served directly under Vázquez de Coronado.

Rodrigo de Gámez was present at the 1540 muster and listed as a footman. He is probably the individual referred to in 1539 and 1544 documents, although no specific mention is made of a connection to the Expedition.

Antón García appears on the 1540 muster as a horseman. Also, Antón is mentioned in documents relating to the death of fellow expeditionary Juan Jiménez. The name is very common in the documentary record.

Cristóbal García was present for the 1540 muster in which he is listed as a horseman. There are quite a number of individuals with the same name in New Spain having various occupations and hailing from different places in Spain.

Hernán García was listed on the 1540 muster as "Hernán García de Llerena." Because his name was so common, we are confident that his entry is stating that he was from Llerena (Badajoz province).

Simón García was listed on the 1540 muster as a horseman.

Bartolomé Garrido was born sometime before 1507 in Moguer (Huelva) to Martín González (a native of Portillo) and Catalina García. He arrived in New Spain in 1521, participated in Cortés's conquest of Pánuco, and then moved on to Guatemala.

Juan de Gaztaca was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman. There is only one Pasajero record for a Juan de Gaztaca and he was born in Luyando (Álava) to Juan Ortíz de Carraztacho and Mari Hernández. This is most likely the expeditionary.

The only definitive mention there is for expeditionary Lorenzo Ginovés is the 1540 muster where he is listed as a footman.

Francisco de Godoy who was present at the 1540 muster as a footman may be the same individual who obtained a license for New Spain in September 1538, along with his brother Antonio de Carvajal.

There are three expeditionaries on the 1540 muster with the name Francisco Gómez. We are arbitrarily assigning Gómez (1) to the company of López de Cárdenas.

There are three expeditionaries on the 1540 muster with the name Francisco Gómez. We are arbitrarily assigning Gómez (2) to the group of horsemen.

There are three expeditionaries on the 1540 muster with the name Francisco Gómez. We are arbitrarily assigning Gómez (3) to the group of footmen.

Hernán Gómez de la Peña was born sometime between 1510 and 1516 in Ledesma (Salamanca province) to Fernando Gómez and Mencia Suárez. The town of Ledesma was within the Mendoza clan control.

Juan Gómez de Paradinas (sometimes written as Paladinas) was born in 1521 in Paradinas, a hamlet outside of Segovia. His parents were Pero Gómez de Paradinas and Ynés Engorra.

Juan Gómez de Salazar was born in approximately 1519 in Valle de Tobalina next to Espinosa de los Monteros in the mountains of Burgos. He came to New Spain in 1537. He was not present at the 1540 muster.

Although we do not know the precise age of Alonso González, el viejo, he was most certainly one of the older expeditionaries.

Alonso González (el mozo) was probably also a native of Villanueva de Fresno.

Fernán González was born on the island of Santo Domingo, though the exact year is unknown. His parents were Alonso González and Mari Hernández.

Given the close connection of a Fernand González to Alonso Maldonado, Juan Paniagua and Pero González on the muster and their connection to the Junco expedition to Colombia, we favor the Pasajero individual to be the expeditionary.

The only fact we know about the expeditionary Francisco González is that he was a horseman.

As the documentary record shows, the name Pedro (Pero) González was extremely common.

Francisco Gorbalán was born around 1511. He was approximately twenty-nine when he went on the Expedition. It is possible that he was born in Medina de Rioseco, Valladolid, as were other Corbaláns.

The only documentary evidence we have of Francisco Górez is that he was present at the muster as a footman. The lack of documents may suggest that he was one of those who died on the Expedition.

There is very little documentary evidence of Gaspar de Guadalupe. He mustered in the company of don Rodrigo Maldonado. Two possible connections exist with other expeditionaries and may shed light on Gaspar's history.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Don Martín Guavzin was a very high ranking Aztec warrior and official.

There are at least two Juan Vizcaínos in the documentary record. Juan Vizcaíno was present at the muster of 1540 as a footman. During the expedition itself he is mentioned as Juan de Guernica.

Don Diego de Guevara was born about 1520 in Escalante:Trasmiera, Cantabria province to don Juan de Guevara and doña Ana de Tovar.

Don Lope de Gurrea was born in Zaragosa, Aragón province to Martín de Gurrea and María Ruiz. He received a license to travel to Tierra Firme in 1537, but within two years he was in New Spain.

The name Francisco Gutiérrez was very common in New Spain. As the documentary record shows there were several different individuals living in various places in New Spain and doing various occupations.

The only thing known with certainty is that Cristóbal Gutiérrez mustered into don Diego de Guevara's company.

Diego Gutiérrez de la Caballería was one of the older expeditionaries, born around 1501 in Almagro, Ciudad Real province, to don Juan Gutiérrez de la Caballería and doña Mayor Flores de Guevara.

The only certain information we have for the expeditionary Alonso Hernández is that he was present at the muster as a footman. As the collected documentary record shows there were many individuals with the name Alonso Hernández.

We are arbitrarily designating Martín Hernández (2) as the individual listed on the muster as an unassigned horseman.

The only certain information we have for the expeditionary Andrés Hernández is that he was present at the muster as a horseman.

The most likely candidate for the expeditionary Diego Hernández, who mustered into the company of don Diego de Guevara as the alférez, is the individual whose father was Ruy González.

The only certain information we have for the expeditionary Gonzalo Hernández is that he was present at the muster as a horseman in the company of Diego Gutiérrez de la Caballería.

The only certain information we have for the expeditionary Graviel Hernández is that he was present at the muster as a footman. However, in the Pasajero record there appears to be only one Graviel headed to New Spain.

The name Juan Hernández was exceedingly common in New Spain. As the documentary record shows many individuals with this name lived in various parts of New Spain and held various occupations.

The most likely candidate for the expeditionary Manuel Hernández, listed as an unassigned horseman on the muster, is the individual who was a member of Viceroy Mendoza's personal guard.

We are arbitrarily assigning Martín Hernández (1) to the company of Diego López (veinticuatro of Sevilla). Without additional information, it is not possible to connect the documentary record to the expeditionary.

The only certain information we have for the expeditionary Miguel Hernández is that he was present at the muster as a footman. As the collected documentary record shows there were many individuals with the name Miguel Hernández.

The only information we have for the expeditionary Nofre Hernández is that he was present at the muster as a member of Diego López's company. Perhaps he was one of the casualties.

There were two Pero Hernándezes on the Expedition.

There were two Pero Hernándezes on the Expedition. We have arbitrarily assigned Hernández (2) to Diego López's company. (The Pero Hernández (1) we assigned as el Leal ). The name Pero/Pedro Hernández was very common in New Spain.

To distinguish himself from the many Pero Hernándezes in New Spain, we believe that this expeditionary added "de Guadalajara," meaning "from Guadalajara." Two pieces of information to support this assumption involve Viceroy Men

Pero Hernández Calvo was a horseman on the Expedition. So little is known about Pero despite his uncommon name. He returned from the Expedition and settled in Culiacán where he died, probably in 1543.

There is very little in the documentary record regarding Martín Hernández Chillón. He mustered into the Expedition as a footman. There is a Pasajero record that seems highly likely to refer to the expeditionary.

Francisco Hernández de Arriba was not present at the 1540 muster. However, he did act as a witness for expeditionary Alonso de Saavedra in Quito in 1583.

A Luis Hernández Garijo stated in 1547 that he was all ready to go to Cíbola before getting sick. This same individual testified for the widow of Guevara in 1565.

Cristóbal Hernández Moreno was an unassigned horseman on the Expedition. As with many of the Hernándezes, the name was very common and there is no definitive documentary evidence to associate with the expeditionary.

Horta Homem mustered into the Expedition as an unassigned horseman and stated that he was from Portugal.

Cristóbal de la Hoz served as a horseman under Vázquez de Coronado. Otherwise, the documentary record is blank for Cristóbal.

Francisca de Hozes, the wife of expeditionary Alonso Sánchez, was a native of Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real province and knew Vázquez de Coronado's mother-in-law, doña Marina Flores de la Caballería.

Pedro de Huelva (or Huerve) was not present at the 1540 muster. He only came to light as a witness for a document executed on the Expedition and in it he is listed as Pedro de Huerve.

García de Huerta was not present at the 1540 muster. We learned of his participation from statements made by his father, Francisco de Huerta, in which he stated that he sent a son on the Expedition.

Juan Jaramillo (el mozo) was born probably before 1510 to Gómez Méndez and Ana de Toro, natives of Villanueva de Barcarrota in the modern province of Badajoz. Prior to arriving in New Spain in 1537, he served in Italy and Tunis.

Pedro Jerónimo was present at the 1540 muster for the Expedition as a horseman and listed as Pero Gerónimo.

Alonso Jiménez was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Juan Jiménez was the only expeditionary so far who died on the Expedition leaving a paper trail. He was a native of Guadalcanal, Sevilla province. There is a confusing Pasajero record on March 6, 1536 for a Juan Jiménez son of Hernán Dianes?

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

All that is known of Antonio de Laredo is that he mustered into the Expedition as a footman. The total lack of additional information may suggest he died on the Expedition.

Pedro de Lasojo was not present at the 1540 muster. Luckily he was a witness to a loan document executed while the Expedition was underway. Otherwise, he would have been completely missing from the Expedition's tally of participants.

Pedro de Ledesma was born probably between 1514 and 1516 to Pedro de Ledesma and Isabel de Grado. He was a native of Zamora in the modern province of Zamora.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The only certain documentary evidence pertaining to Pedro Linares is his listing on the muster of 1540 in the company of Vázquez de Coronado.

There are several Alonso Lópezes in the documentary record. A likely candidate is the individual who went with Junco to Santa Marta, Colombia in 1535, as did several other expeditionaries.

Diego López (veinticuatro of Sevilla) was born 1512 to Diego López and doña Isabel de Hernández? in the city of Sevilla, Sevilla province. Diego received his license for New Spain in March 1538.

Unfortunately the name Francisco López was very common in New Spain. As the documentary shows, the many Francisco Lópezes lived all over New Spain, practiced many different trades, and were married to women of varying names.

Graviel López was born around 1519. He arrived in New Spain in 1536. During the Expedition he was a member of the company of Diego López (veinticuatro of Sevilla).

The name Juan López was very common in New Spain as the documentary record shows.

At the time of the 1540 muster Pedro López gave his name as Pedro López de Ciudad Real and was an unassigned horseman.

Don García López de Cárdenas was born sometime between 1512 and 1514 in Madrid (Madrid province) to Nunfro Ramírez and doña Mencía de Cárdenas.

Juan López de la Rosa was a native of Sayago (Zamora province) and the child of Juan López and Catalina Martín. He arrived in New Spain in 1534 and was a mill owner in Puebla by 1536.

The birth year of Pedro López de Urrea varies wildly in the documentary record - 1501, 1512, 1524 are some dates, depending on how Pedro indicated his age. He was born in Ciudad Real (Ciudad Real province) to Alonso López and Isabel de Urria.

Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano was a very important member of the Expedition. He served as a captain and at times as maestre de campo. Tristán's heritage was illustrious.

Diego Madrid Avendaño was born around 1511 in Toledo (Toledo province) to Diego de Madrid and Çeçilia de la Fuente.

Cristóbal Maldonado was present at the 1540 muster and was listed as an unassigned horseman.

María Maldonado was one of only two Spanish women mentioned in the documentary record as having participated in the Expedition.

Don Rodrigo Maldonado was born in approximately 1510 in Guadalajara (Guadalajara province) . He arrived in New Spain in 1535. During the Expedition he was a captain, a completely expected event because he was related by blood to Viceroy Mendoza.

Rodrigo Maldonado, not to be confused with don Rodrigo Maldonado, was a ship's captain and treasurer for Alarcón's voyage up the Gulf of California in search of the Expedition and thus, was not present at the 1540 muster.

A possible match for the expeditionary Alonso Maldonado is the individual who went to Santa Marta, Colombia with Junco, as several other expeditionaries did.

Don Alonso Manrique de Lara was one of the more distinguished members of the Expedition. Born to don Alonso Manrrique and doña Catalina de Aragón, he was a native Valladolid (Valladolid province).

Pedro Márquez was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. There are at least two different individuals with the same name and the documentary record does not shed light on if or whether either of them was the expeditionary.

Andrés Martín (2) was present at the 1540 muster as a footman and described as a Portuguese. The use of (2) is arbitrary and only to distinguish between the other Andrés Martín (1), horseman.

Antón Martín was present at the 1540 muster as a footman. The commonness of Antón's name gives little assistance in distinguishing the expeditionary from others with the same name in the documentary record.

Domingo Martín was born around 1501 to Bartolomé Martín Salgado and Beatriz Alonso, natives of Las Broças (Cáceres province). Domingo was one of the oldest expeditionaries at 39 and one of the more experienced.

Esteban Martín was born sometime before 1523. He was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Francisco Martín (2) was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. The designation of (2) is arbitrary and used to distinguish between Francisco Martín (1) the footman.

Juan Martín was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman and his name was written as Juan Martín de la Fuente del Maestre. The additional information was indicating his place of origin, Fuente del Maestre (Badajoz province).

Andrés Martín (1) was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company. The use of (1) is arbitrary and only to distinguish between the other Andrés Martín (2), footman.

Francisco Martín (1) was present at the 1540 muster as a footman. We have arbitrarily assigned (1) to the footman and (2) to horseman.

Hernando Martín Bermejo was born around 1515 in Fuente del Arco (Badajoz province) to Gonzalo García and Isabel González.

Juan Martín Bermejo was born in Fuente del Arco (Badajoz province) to Bartolomé Martín and Marina Alonso. Juan received his license for New Spain in September 1535 along with his cousin Hernando Martín Bermejo, Juan Morillo, and Pero Martín Cano.

Pero Martín Cano was born around 1502 in Fuente del Arco (Badajoz province) to Cristóbal Martín and Cecilia Martín.

Pedro Martín de la Bermeja was a native of Calzadilla (Cáceres province) and the son of Juan Martín de la Bermeja and Leonor Sánchez, la Pavona. Pedro obtained his license for New Spain in March 1534.

Alonso Martín Parra was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Diego Gutiérrez de la Caballería's company. He was in Mexico City at least by 1538. The individual called Alonso de la Parra and Alonso de Parra may be the expeditionary.

Diego de Mata may be the individual in the Pasajero record who was a native of Cazorla and arrived in New Spain with Alvarado. Two reasons make this a strong possibility.

Pedro Mayoral was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Guevara's company. His last name, Mayoral, may indicate his profession, namely, a head herdsman. An expedition of this size would certainly require such a person.

Cristóbal de Mayorga was born in 1512 in Benavente (Zamora province) to Juan de Mayorga and Beatriz Coco. He took part in the Guzmán pacification of Nueva Galicia in 1529 and was granted an encomienda in Chiametla for his service.

All that we know of Florián de Mazuela was that he was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman. Because the documentary record goes silent, he may have died on the Expedition.

The name Alonso de Medina was somewhat common in New Spain. The Alonso de Medina of the Expedition was present at the 1540 muster in the company of don Rodrigo Maldonado.

All that is known for certain is that Diego de Medina was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Pablo de Melgosa was born around 1516 in Burgos (Burgos province) to Antonio de Melgosa and doña Teresa de Miranda Melgosa. By 1536 he was in Mexico City as a contador.

Pero Méndez de Sotomayor was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman and was later described as the chronicler for the Expedition.

Gerónimo Mercado de Sotomayor was born in 1519 in Carmona (Sevilla province) to Francisco Hernández de Bigue and Juana Díaz de Sotomayor.

Antonio Mesa was not present at the 1540 muster, but attested that he had participated and lost an arm due to poison in a conflict with Natives of Señora. It is possible that the Antonio Mesa in the Pasajero record is the expeditionary.

Antón Miguel was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman in don Rodrigo Maldonado's company. After the Expedition the trail of Antón Miguel goes cold.

Alonso Millero, the Galician, was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Andrés de Miranda was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman. It is possible that Andrés was the individual who came to New Spain in 1526, although that Andrés Miranda never mentioned having gone on the Expedition.

Francisco Mondragón was not present at the 1540 muster. We know of his participation only from testimony of another expeditionary, Gaspar de Saldaña.

Alonso del Moral was present at the 1540 muster as the alférez for López de Cárdenas. Very little mention of an Alonso del Moral exists in the documentary record, so the expeditionary might be the person from Fontanar (Guadalajara province).

Juan de Morales testified in December 1540 that he had participated in the Expedition as a member of Alarcón's sailing mission up the Gulf of California and Colorado River.

Diego de Morilla was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman in Diego López's company.

Juan Morillo was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Francisco Muñoz was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman under Vázquez de Coronado. He was a native of Granja (in modern Cáceres province) and the son of Sabastián Muñoz and Juana Hernández de Palaçios. He arrived in New Spain in 1533.

Juan Muñoz was not present at the 1540 muster. Only later in 1547 do we learn that a certain Miguel de Santiago wanted to go on the Expedition, but fell sick. So in his stead he sent Juan Muñoz, who died at some point while in Tierra Nueva.

Alonso Muñoz de Castañeda was not present at the 1540 muster. During the 1547-48 Tello de Sandoval investigation of Viceroy Mendoza, Alonso was a witness. Here he stated that he participated in the Expedition.

The documentary record for Napolitano is very scarce. Bartolomé was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Diego López's company. He may also have returned from the Expedition to live in Colima, but that is not a certainty.

There is a Juan Navarro in the Pasajero record that may be the expeditionary due to the fact that he is listed in close proximity to three other known expeditionaries, Nieto, Serrano, and Santillana.

Pedro Navarro was born in 1509 or 1510 in Estella (modern Navarra province) to Sant Perdón and María de la Torre. Pedro obtained a license to travel to New Spain in 1535. He was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Antón Negrín was not present at the 1540 muster. Luckily, he was named as an albacea for a fellow expeditionary, Juan Jiménez, who died in the Tiguex province.

Pedro Nieto, a native of Plasencia (Cáceres province), was the son of Antón Nieto and María Hernández. He obtained a license to travel to Peru in 1537, as did three other expeditionaries, Juan Navarro, Serrano, and Santillana.

Diego Núñez de Garueña was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. It is clear that in order to distinguish the two Diego Núñezes each added their place of origin to their respective surnames.

Diego Núñez de Mirandilla was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. It is clear that in order to distinguish the two Diego Núñezes each added their place of origin to their respective surnames.

Francisco de Olivares, son of Alonso de Olivares and Mari Velázquez, was a native of Béjar del Castañar (in modern Salamanca province). He arrived in Mexico City around 1528.

Sancho Ordóñez was a native of Alange (in Badajoz province) and the son of Juan Mateos and Olalla Ordóñes. He arrived in New Spain around 1523 and ten years later was living in Puebla as a corregidor and farm owner.

Hernando de Orduña was a native of Burgos (Burgos province). Although he was not present at the muster, we learn of his participation through testimony that he gave in 1545.

Juan de Orduña, the son of Juan de Orduña and María de Ayala, was a native of Toledo (Toledo province). He came to New Spain as early as 1533 and participated in the pacification of Chontales with Francisco Maldonado.

Andrés Orejón was not present at the 1540 muster, but he stated in 1547 that he was a native of Ávila (Ávila province) and that he participated in the expedition, probably as a horseman.

Pedro de Ortega may be the individual in the Pasajero record who was a native of Segovia (Segovia province) and the son of Pedro de Ortega and Isabel de Segovia.

Francisco de Ovando was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman, but at one point in the Expedition he was named as a captain and maestre de campo.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Don García Padilla was a native of Zapotitlán in the province of Tuxpan (State of Jalisco).

All that is known with certainty is that Francisco de Padilla was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

The Franciscan, fray Juan de Padilla, was an early resident of New Spain. Prior to the Expedition, he was mainly in western Mexico.

Although the expeditionary Fernán Páez was present at the 1540 muster under that name, it is clear from the documentary record that he was also referred to as Pérez.

Juan Paniagua was a native of Écija (Sevilla province) and the son of Luis Hernández Paniagua and Mençia Marruquin. Prior to the Expedition Juan was in Cartagena, as were several other expeditionaries.

Francisco de Parada was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Gutiérrez de la Caballería's company. Other than that fact, the documentary record does not with certainty give us any further information.

Alonso Paradinas was present at the 1540 muster as a well-equipped member of Guevara's company. The documentary record shows a Alonso Rodríguez de Paradinas as a lieutenant to maestre de campo Lope de Samaniego.

Pedro Pascual was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman with some armor. Two documentary records may pertain to Pedro as well.

Juan Pastor was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman with some armor pieces. In 1552 as a vecino of Culiacán Juan testified that he had remained behind in Señora with don Tristán Luna y Arellano before heading north to Cíbola.

Rodrigo de Paz Maldonado (not to be confused with don Rodrigo Maldonado) was a native of Salamanca (Salamanca province). He came to the New World with the Alonso Lugo expedition to Santa Marta, Colombia in 1536 and then moved on to Peru.

Bartolomé de Pedes was present at the 1540 muster as a footman. The Pedes surname does not appear in the documentary record, other than on the muster. Possibly his name was written incorrectly by the scribe; perhaps it should have been Pérez.

Juan Pedro was not present at the 1540 muster. The only known documentary mention is from the proceedings associated with the death of Juan Jiménez in the Tiguex province.

Juan de Peñas was a native of Viana de Mondéjar (Guadalajara province) and the son of Aparicio de Peñas and Beatriz Alonso. Juan arrived in New Spain in 1533, possibly with his parents.

García de Perea was listed on the 1540 muster as a footman. A couple of years after the return of the Expedition he appeared as a witness in Mexico City. It is possible that he moved on to Guatemala in the early 1550s.

Alonso Pérez may have been a native of Trigueros (modern Huelva province) because his father, bachiller Alonso Pérez was. However, that is conjecture.

Andrés Pérez was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Guevara's company. Both before and after the Expedition Andrés was involved in mining. He also held the important position of alguacil ejecutor of la Real Hacienda.

Cristóbal Pérez was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman and he gave his name as Cristóbal Pérez de Ávila.

Juan Pérez was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company under the name Juan Pérez Aragones. He was a native of Aragón. He was a barber/surgeon and worked as such on the Expedition.

Antón Pérez Buscavida was a native of Conil de la Frontera (in Cádiz province) and the son of Alonso Pérez Rezio and Juana González. He arrived in New Spain in 1535 and lived in Nueva Galicia.

There are documentary references to a Juan Pérez de Vergara from Mondragón (Guipúzcoa province) in the 1520s, but it is not certain that they refer to the expeditionary or his family.

Melchior Pérez [de la Torre] was a native of Villa de la Torre (in the modern province of Badajoz) and the son of licenciado Diego de la Torre and Catalina Mexía. He arrived in New Spain in 1529 and the following year was an encomendero.

Juan de Plasencia was a native of Murçia (in modern Murçia province) and the son of Juan García de Plasenzia and Ynés Gómez. He was in Mexico City by 1537. Juan was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Francisco de Pobares was a native of Sabiote (Jaén province) and the son of Francisco de Pobares and Quíteria de Vera. Francisco was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Diego de Puelles was a native of Miranda de Ebro (Burgos province) and the son of Alonso González de Puelles and Sancha Hurtado.

Cristóbal de Quesada was a native of Carmona (Sevilla province) and the son of Juan de Aldana and Beatriz de Baena. He came to New Spain in 1535, leaving his wife and family in Spain.

Luis de Quijada was not present at the 1540 muster. His presence was learned of during Vázquez de Coronado's later defense in which Luis is mentioned as having been Juan de Zaldívar's alférez.

Luis Ramírez de Vargas was a native of Madrid (Madrid province) and the son of Juan Ramírez de Tovar and doña Ana de Vargas. Luis may have accompanied Viceroy Mendoza to New Spain.

Gerónimo Ramos, most likely a native of Llerena (Badajoz province), was the son of Ruy Martín and Leonor Ramos. If so, then Gerónimo first went to Cartagena with Junco in 1535. He was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Like Gerónimo Ramos, Juan de Ramos was probably a native of Llerena (Badajoz province) and the son of Hernando Ramos and Francisca Pérez. If correct, then like Gerónimo (possibly a relative) Juan first went to Cartagena with Junco in 1535.

All that is known for certain is that Pedro de Ramos was present at the 1540 muster as a footman and an alferez.

The expeditionary Juan de Ribadeneyra most likely is the individual who was a native of Espinosa de Los Monteros (Burgos province) and the son of Francisco Fernández and María de Novara. If correct, then Juan came to Mexico in 1537.

Antonio de Ribero de Espinosa was also referred to as simply Antonio de Ribero and on the 1540 muster as Antonio de Ribera, a probable scribal error.

Melchor de Robles was a native of Almazán (Soria province) and the son of Gil de Robles and María Beltrán de Ocariz (Ocalez). Melchor obtained a license for Santo Domingo in 1537 but was in Mexico City by 1539.

The name Francisco de Rodríguez was very common in New Spain. It is known that he was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Luna y Arellano's company.

García Rodríguez was probably a native of Alcaraz (Albacete province), although he also stated that he was a native of Villanueva de los Infantes (Ciudad Real province). The two locations are about 11 miles apart.

The only definitive information for Gaspar Rodríguez is that he was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

As the documentary record shows the name Juan Rodríguez was very common in New Spain. Therefore, the expeditionary added the fact that he was a native of Alange (Badajoz province).

As the documentary record shows the name Juan Rodríguez was very common in New Spain. Therefore, the expeditionary, like Juan Rodríguez de Alange, added the fact that he was a native of Ávalos (La Rioja province).

Sancho Rodríguez was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Maldonado's company.

Alonso Rodríguez Parra was not present at the 1540 muster.

Gómez Román was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company. Gómez may have lived in Puebla in the 1550s as a muleteer. Is it possible that this muleteer performed the same function for the captain general?

Marco Romano was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company.

Domingo Romero was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. It is known that Domingo did not know how to sign his name, so he may also be the individual in Guadalajara in 1550 who likewise did not know how to write.

Francisco Roxo Loro was a native of Sicily and the son of Sebastian Roxo and Inés Acosta. The addition of the word "Loro" may have pertained to the color of his skin rather than a known surname.

Francisco Roxo (el mozo) was not present at the 1540 muster, or at least was not listed along with his father, possibly due to his young age of 14. Francisco's own testimony in 1566 made his presence known.

Although the name Antón Ruiz was somewhat common, it appears from the Pasajero record that Antón came to New Spain in 1536 with his brother and fellow expeditionary, Gonzalo Yáñez.

All that is known about Domingo Ruiz is that he was present at the 1540 muster as a footman with an arquebus.

There were three expeditionaries with the name Juan Ruiz. We have arbitrarily assigned (1) to the expeditionary from Hispañola, (2) to the expeditionary from Agudo, and (3) to the expeditionary who settled in Chiametla and was illiterate.

There were three expeditionaries with the name Juan Ruiz. We have arbitrarily assigned (1) to the expeditionary from Hispañola, (2) to the expeditionary from Agudo, and (3) to the expeditionary who settled in Chiametla and was illiterate.

There were three expeditionaries with the name Juan Ruiz. We have arbitrarily assigned (1) to the expeditionary from Hispañola, (2) to the expeditionary from Agudo, and (3) to the expeditionary who settled in Chiametla and was illiterate.

Marcos Ruiz de Rojas, a native of Madrid (Madrid province), was the son of Bartolomé Ruiz and María de Rojas. Marcos first served at the Royal Court as a guarda de damas. He came to New Spain as a member of Viceroy Mendoza's personal guard.

Hernandarias de Saavedra descended from illustrious families in Sevilla (Sevilla province). His parents were Hernán Darias de Sayavedra and doña Catalina de Guzman.

Diego de Salamanca was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. He may have been the individual living in Culiacán in the 1530s. The Diego de Salamanca who served with Narváez does not mention the Expedition in his statements.

It appears highly likely that the Gaspar de Salamanca from Melgar (Burgos province) and the son of Beatriz de la Torre and Martín de Salamanca is the expeditionary, due to the fact that he came to New Spain in 1538 with two known expeditionaries.

Little is known with certainty about Juan de Salamanca. He was present at the 1540 muster as a footman with an arquebus. There are several Juan de Salamancas with various occupations listed in the documentary record.

Gaspar de Saldaña was a native of Guadalajara, Spain (Guadalajara province) and the son of Juan de Saldaña and María de Salcedo.

Andrés de Salinas, a native of Salinas de Rosío (Burgos province), was the son of Alonso Sanz de Salinas and María Alonso de Abarrça/Abariça. Andrés stated in 1547 that he and his son went on the Expedition.

The son of Andrés de Salinas is known to have come to New Spain with his father in 1536, so it is highly likely that he was a native of Salinas de Rosío (Burgos province) also.

Lope de Samaniego was a native of Segovia (Segovia province). He came to New Spain around 1522. Lope at some point returned to Spain and came back to New Spain with Luis Ponce de León, who came to take the residencia of Cortés, in 1526.

Julián de Sámano was most likely a native of Santa Gadea (in Burgos province). He was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Juan Bautista de San Vitores was present at the 1540 muster as a very well-equipped horseman in Vázquez de Coronado's company. Juan was present in New Spain at least by 1536 as a merchant and possibly as slave trader.

Alonso Sánchez was a native of Ciudad Real (Ciudad Real province) and the son of Alonso Sánchez Montañes and Catalina Sánchez Caçero.

The name Bartolomé Sánchez was quite common in New Spain and there are several individuals of different occupations in the documentary record.

There appears to be only one Damián Sánchez in the documentary record of this time period. Therefore, he was a native of Sevilla (Sevilla province) and the son of Alonso Sánchez and Mayor Núñoz.

Diego Sánchez was present at the 1540 muster as Diego Sánchez de Fromista, an unassigned horseman. Most likely he added the "de Fromista" in order to differentiate himself from other Diego Sánchezes.

All that is known of Leonardo Sánchez was that he was present at the 1540 muster as a member of Maldonado's company.

The name Martín Sánchez was quite common in New Spain during this time period. However, there is a tantalizing individual who was the natural son of Rui González.

The name Miguel Sánchez was quite common in New Spain during this period. In fact, there are two expeditionaries with that name. We have arbitrarily assigned (1) to the member of Gutiérrez de la Caballería's company and (2) to the footman.

Miguel Sánchez de Plasencia was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman in Luna y Arellano's company.

Pedro Sánchez was a fairly common name in New Spain during this time period. As the documentary record shows there are Pedro Sánchezes in various locations and having various occupations.

Rodrigo Sánchez was a native of Azuaga (Badajoz province) and the son of Hernán González and Juana Hernández.

Three sons of Alonso Sánchez and Francisca de Hozes are listed in the documentary record: Alonso de la Cámara, Francisco de la Serna and Juan de Hozes.

The name Miguel Sánchez was quite common in New Spain during this period. In fact, there are two expeditionaries with that name.

Juan de Sandoval was not present at the 1540 muster. The documentary information that supports his participation comes from the Nahuatl and cited in a secondary source.

There is strong evidence that Francisco de Santillana was a native of Sevilla (Sevilla province) and the son of Juan de Pineda and doña Constanza de Santillana.

Juan de Santovaya was present at the 1540 muster as a footman from Galicia.

Alonso de Sayavedra came to New Spain in 1533 and was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

All that is known for certain is that Bartolomé Serrano was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Francisco de Simancas was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman in Vázquez de Coronado's company.

Rodrigo Simón was a native of Palos/Moguer (Huelva province) and the son of Pedro Alonso Roldán and Inés Alonso Liximano. He arrived in New Spain very early (1521) with the first royal official, Alderete, and several other future expeditionaries.

Juan de Solís Farfán was present at the 1540 muster as a horseman in Luna y Arellano's company. There are documentary records for both a Juan de Solís and a Juan de Farfán, but nothing except the muster for a Juan de Solís Farfán.

Sebastián de Soto was a native of Guadalajara (Guadalajara province) and the son of Sebastián de Soto and María Barbáz.

Juan de Sotomayor was not present at the 1540 muster, but the chronicler, Castañeda de Nájera, tells us that he was a caballero.

Juan Suárez de Ávila was not present at the 1540 muster. It was only years later in 1585 that Juan stated he had, in fact, gone on the Expedition. The age he gave in 1585 was 58, which would have made him a very young member of the Expedition.

Gómez Suárez de Figueroa was present at the 1540 muster as a very well-equipped member of Vázquez de Coronado's company.

Pedro de Talavera was present at the 1540 muster as a footman with some armor.

Rodrigo de Tamarán, the son of Ruy Díaz de Aguero, was a native of Espinosa de los Monteros (Burgos province), as was most likely the expeditionary Juan de Ribaneyra. He came to New Spain in 1527.

Diego de Temiño was not present at the 1540 muster. Through a secondary source from the first half of the 1600s comes the information that the brother of Baltasar de Bañuelos, someone Temiño, died in Corazones.

Francisco Temiño, the son of Juan de Temiño and doña María de Quiros, was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. Francisco did not state where he was born. After the Expedition he chose to live in Mexico City.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luckily, several served as witnesses after the Expedition returned to New Spain.

Alonso de Toro, a native of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid province), was the son of Pedro de Toro and Mari Flores. Prior to the Expedition Alonso served on the Montejo expedition to Honduras.

Juan de Torquemada was present at the 1540 muster as the alférez of Maldonado's company.

Francisco de Torres, the son of Juan Hernández de Torres and Catalina Hernández, was a native of Trujillo (Cáceres province).

Miguel de Torres was present both at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman and at Tiguex pueblo as a witness.

Miguel de Torrez was present at the 1540 muster as a footman with an arquebus. There was also a Miguel de Torres (with a "s") on the Expedition and some documentary entries listed under Miguel de Torres may pertain to Miguel de Torrez.

Don Pedro de Tovar, a native of Villamartín de don Sancho (León province), was a member of a very illustrious family.

The expeditionary Juan Troyano stated in 1568 in one of his many letters to the king that "it was in God's interest to give him a wife from Tierra Nueva." Rarely do women appear in the documentary record and Troyano gives no details

Despite the moniker "Troyano" (someone from Troy), Juan Troyano was a native of Medina de Rioseco (Valladolid province) and the son of Antonio Clavijo and Catalina de Villagarçia.

Pedro de Trujillo was present at the 1540 muster as a footman. He was again mentioned in the documentary record for threatening Vázquez de Coronado and for being left behind in Culiacán.

Rodrigo de Trujillo was probably born in Veracruz, Mexico to expeditionary Jorge Báez and Luisa, a Native woman, making him one of the few known mestizo members of the Expedition. He was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luisa was one of the few women mentioned by name in the documentary record.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Sebastián was a native of Zapotlán (State of Jalisco).

Fray Marcos was born in Nice, France. He first arrived in Hispañola in 1531 and then went to Peru and Guatemala prior to the Expedition.

Lázaro was present at the 1540 muster and listed among the footmen as a drummer. He was most likely a black, but whether free or slave is unknown.

Like many religious, fray Luis de Úbeda did not use his given name. The use of Úbeda probably referred to his place of birth in the Jaén province. Fellow expeditionary Juan Jaramillo gave his name as fray Luis de Escalona.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Don Alonso was a native of Pátzcuaro (modern state of Michoacán) and a principal among his people.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Damián was a principal in the San Sebastián barrio of Mexico City.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record.

There is little known with certainty about the expeditionary maese Miguel other than that he was present at the muster of 1540 in the company of López de Cárdenas.

Although slaves from North and West Africa were common on the Coronado Expedition, information about them is extremely scarce.

We know nothing of the son of maese Miguel, not even his first name. Both father and son mustered into the company of López de Cárdenas.

Although slaves from North and West Africa were common on the Coronado Expedition, information about them is extremely scarce.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Lucas was a native of Zapotlán (State of Jalisco).

During the Expedition Juan Jiménez died in Tiguex province from an illness. As required by law, his property was sold to satisfy his debtors and to distribute to heirs.

The only mention of an expeditionary with the last name of Ureña comes from Obregón's work of 1584 in which he stated that a Ureña escaped from the Native attack at San Gerónimo.

All that is known for certain is Juan de Vaca was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Alonso de Valderey/Valderreina was not present at the 1540 muster. He later testified that he did participate in the Expedition.

Francisco de Valdivieso was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. A witness in Zacatula, Mexico, which is on the west coast just north of Zihuatanejo, stated that he saw Francisco leave on the Expedition.

Alonso de Valencia was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. It seems highly likely that Alonso was the son of the conqueror of the same name.

There are only two mentions in the documentary record of an individual with a name close to the expeditionary's. Therefore, Juan de Vallera is probably the person present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Cristóbal del Valle was not present at the 1540 muster. He stated in 1547 that he did participate in the Expedition and that he had been in New Spain since 1536.

Hernando de Valle was in New Spain by 1529 and served under Guzmán in the conquest of Nueva Galicia. He was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

Francisco de Vargas was present at the 1540 muster as a footman. Fellow expeditionary Gonzalo de Arjona was listed in the Pasajero record immediately before a Francisco de Vargas.

Pedro de Vargas was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman.

The only certain documentary record for Gonzalo Vázquez was his presence at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. As with other expeditionaries with so little information, Gonzalo may have died on the Expedition.

Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, a native of Salamanca (Salamanca province) and son of Juan Vásquez de Coronado and Isabel de Luxán, came from an illustrious family.

Rosele Vázquez de Garivel was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. Otherwise, he does not show up in the documentary record.

Alonso de Velasco was present at the 1540 muster as a well-equipped member of Vázquez de Coronado's company. It is not possible to attach the other documentary information to the expeditionary.

Unfortunately the 1540 muster mentions only this individual's last name - Velasco, a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company (as was Alonso de Velasco).

Cristóbal Velázquez was present at the 1540 muster as Cristóbal Velasco, a member of Vázquez de Coronado's company. This was a scribal error, perhaps due to the two previous Velascos in the captain general's company.

Rodrigo de Vera was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. There are several very late documentary sources for a Rodrigo de Vera which may pertain to the expeditionary.

Francisco de Villafranca was present at the 1540 muster as a footman with an arquebus. There is a Pasajero record for a Francisco de Villafranca from Medina de Rioseco in Valladolid province, the son of Antonio de Villafranca and Ana de la Jarda.

Bernardino de Villagómez was a ship's captain for one of Alarcón's ships going up the Gulf of California and into the Colorado River.

Juan de Villareal was a native of Agudo (Ciudad Real province) and son of Rodrigo de Villarreal and Beatriz Alonso. He arrived in New Spain in 1530 and served with Cortés on the Cardón and Isla de California expeditions of 1532.

Martín de Villaroya was present at the 1540 muster as a well-equipped horseman. He was also the son-in-law of expeditionaries Alonso Sánchez and Francisca de Hozes.

Juan de Villegas was present at the 1540 muster as an unassigned horseman. During the Expedition Juan was accused of raping a Pueblo woman, but apparently was not punished due to lack of acceptable evidence.

Juan de Vitoria was a native of Burgos (Burgos province) and most likely the son of Tomás de Vitoria and Sancha Urtis de Barrón.

Alonso Vos was present at the 1540 muster as an armed footman. He gave his name as Alonso Vos de Ribadeo, suggesting that he was a native of Ribadeo (Lugo province).

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luckily, several served as witnesses after the Expedition returned to New Spain.

Gonzalo Yáñez was a native of Guadalcanal (Sevilla province) and son of Gonzalo Yáñez de Ortega and Juana Páez. He was the brother of fellow expeditionary Antón Ruiz. Gonzalo was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

The indios amigos were not listed on the 1540 muster but many were present. They also rarely appear as individuals in the documentary record. Luckily, several served as witnesses after the Expedition returned to New Spain.

Rodrigo de Ysla was present at the 1540 muster as a well-equipped horseman in López de Cárdenas's company.

Juan de Zagala was not present at the 1540 muster. In 1551 he was a witness for expeditionary Cristóbal de Escobar and stated that he had gone to Tierra Nueva and served in Vázquez de Coronado's personal guard.

The Oñate-Zaldívar family was very prominent in New Spain and eventually New Mexico. Juan de Zaldívar's uncle, Cristóbal de Oñate, served with Cortés and was acting governor of Nueva Galicia while Vázquez de Coronado was in Tierra Nueva.

All that is known for certain is that Baltasar de Zamora was present at the 1540 muster as a footman.

Nicolás Zamorano was the chief pilot for Alarcón's attempted rendezvous by ship with the Expedition. He might be the individual who came with Cortés and if correct, he would have been a native of Porcuna in Jaén province.